"Results from the study in Honolulu indicate that ice is finding uncomfortable but considerable position among other illicit drugs. The use of ice in Honolulu had led to particularly serious physical and psychological problems and significant social disruption in poor working communities where it replaced marijuana which had become scarce and expensive due to eradication policies. Ice continues to result in very serious individual problems contributing to the devastating impact on these communities.
"There are thought to be several influences on the tremendous growth of ice in Honolulu after 1987. Residents were both pushed away from pakalolo, their staple drug of choice, and pulled toward ice by a well organized marketing campaign by Asian distributors. Also, the overwhelming smokable drug of choice, marijuana or pakalolo, which has been grown and used throughout the islands for many years, became the target of a government eradication campaign. This drove up prices, drastically reduced availability and left locals without their their customary, and many would say relatively benign, smoke. Also very importantly,, many locals derived either part or all of their livelihood from marijuana production, robbed of this needed income many experienced considerable economic hardship. Thus when a new, easy to use, smokable product entered the drug market, one which at first felt non-threatening to youthful novitiates -- ice it was readily accepted as a product to be used and sold. Initial users were often likely to think of it as a substitute of sorts for pakalolo (Dayton, 1994)."